Entrepreneurs are portrayed as salient drivers of regional development and for a number of years nascent entrepreneurs have been studied in a large number of countries as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project and the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics. Scholars have devoted much effort to investigating factors that determine how individuals engage in entrepreneurial activities, with most of the discussion limited to business start-ups. However, since this type of project does not follow identical nascent entrepreneurs over time, limited knowledge exists about their development and whether they stay in this nascent phase for a long time. In practice, it is common for entrepreneurs to run a business and at the same time work in wage work, so-called hybrid entrepreneurs. In Sweden, almost half of all business owners combine wage work with a business. However, not all hybrid entrepreneurs will eventually decide to leave the wage work and invest fully in the business. Consequently, much research has focused on the first step of entering entrepreneurship full time, but less has focused on the second step, the transition from the hybrid phase to full-time self-employment. The aim of my thesis was to contribute to the theory of entrepreneurship by gaining a deeper understanding of hybrid entrepreneurs and their motives and intentions
The results indicate three types of combining entrepreneurs: nascent – with the intention to leave the combining phase for a transition into full-time self-employment, lifestyle – with the intention to stay in the combining phase, and occasional – with the intention to leave the combining phase for full-time wage work and close down the business. Transitioning fully to self-employment increases with the individual’s age. Also, a positive interactive effect exists with involvement in entrepreneurial networks. The results also indicate that the ability to work with something one is passionate about is the top motive for combining wage work with a side-business. Passion is also more likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who are older at business start-up, but passion is less likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who spend more time on the business. The longer the individual has had the side-business, the less likely passion is the main motive behind the hybrid form, and passion is less likely to be the main motive among those who are part of an entrepreneurial team.
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